This exposť on nine pages I brought last week, on Tuesday 24th of this November 1942, to the National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C., at approximately 3,45 p.m. I applied there to Mr.P.Brockett, the curator, asking to accept from me for secure keeping the nine pages which I proposed to put in an envelope, after he would, (if he likes) to inspect them. To introduce myself I showed my publications ‘Scripta Academica’. I waived in advance any responsibility on the part of the Academy, in case my exposť would be destroyed by fire, by an enemy action or be lost otherwise. I explained that the results of my research are of a far reaching importance for many fields of science. The curator refused to my asking, telling me that this is not the duty of the Academy, and such procedure is unknown. I insisted, explaining that this courtesy would be a logical duty of an academy; I do not ask printing in Proceedings, nor bringing my paper before a meeting; I am interested in securing my priority for the results of my research. I asked whether he would like hear an opinion of the President or Secretary of the Academy.He answered me that he himself is the Executive Secretary of the Academy. He suggested to me that I shall apply to the National Archiv. I replied that I understand that the suggested Institution is serving only as the Governmental Archiv, and would not accept a paper of a scholarly character brought by a private person. I was asked why I should not read about my research in a scientific society. I explained that the research with all its material is very large (The Mns now is well over five hundred pages, and it will take probably one or two years before it will be printed; another another book will precede in publication), and to bring the results without the material which served as proofs, would be unadvisable, especially because of the extraordinary character of my results. There can’t be nothing in the Statutes of the Academy, why my envelope should not be accepted. How would he act, if not my humble personality, but a Copernicus or Newton would apply with a similar asking? - But in spite of all arguments - I could not be more eloquent, and to keep better the exact measure in all respects, - I did no succeed in this long and friendly conversation. Then I asked him to write me his refusal, and he noticed my address in N.Y. But up till to day I did not receive any notice.

signed before Notary

Rose Richardson Mandel, Dec. 5, 1942
certified by Supreme Court Clerk DC. 11, 1942

I present here some results of my research based upon inquiry in different material, historical, geological, physical, geophysical, pertaining to folklore and to history of religions. A full description of results of my research will appear in book form, and there the material will be presented in full.

The results to which I arrived, appear to be of fundamental importance to science in all its branches.

To begin with, our Earth collided (contacted) in the fifteenth century before this era with a comet. The head of the comet exchanged violent electrical discharges with our planet, and also with its own tail. The Earth changed the poles, south becoming north, changed axis, changed the orbit of revolution changed speed. As a result, the year that consisted previously of 260 became 36o days (our orbit was approximately that of Venus today). The moon changed its orbit, and the month of 20 days became of 36. Iron previously neared to the core of the Earth, appeared in upper layers. Neft poured from sky and built the present deposit. Meteorites fell in abundance. Harras in desert of Arabia are meteorites fields. Lava streamed on the surface of the Earth not only from volcanoes, but also from clefts. Continents and seas changed places. Rivers disappeared, others appeared, still others inversed their direction (f.e. Jordan, that flow previously to the Meditteraneum, Dead sea being not in existence). A major part of human kind perished. A double tide of immense high swept seas and continents. In general conflagration woods burned down, rivers boiled; magnetic storms reached degree hurtful to bioplasma; immense hurricane accompanied the change of rotation of the Earth. In places struck by electrical contact with the comet nitogren was converted into (deposits) of saltpeter. Air became filled with clouds of carbons or hydrocarbons, and Earth was enveloped in them during a number of years. These compounds of carbon precipitated slowly in the process of cooling.

South pole which was approximately between Greenland and Northern America, or in North America, changed its place by approximately 159 degrees. Its former place might be found by locating the center of the later ice-age-cover; ice age did came to close at that moment. The magnetic pole previous to that contact, or still earlier was probably coinciding with the geographic pole,

The comet changed its path too after the electrical contact with the Earth, its orbit became a stretched ellipse, and was semi-planet semi-comet. After 5o or 52 years it contacted for the second time with the Earth, and the Earth was brought out of rotation. This encounter in the fourteenth century before the present era, had similar effects as the previous contact. But there was no permanent change of direction of rotation, nor change of north and south. Since 34 centuries the sun rises in the East. After the second encounter the Earth was endangered every 50-52 years by this new planet of the solar system: this is the planet Venus. The above recorded calendar changes are effects of first a n d the second encounter.

In the ninth century Venus moving on a stretched ellipse contacted with Mars, brought Mars out of its path, and repeated this contact for a number of times, and since then has Venus occupied approximately its present position in the solar system, and ceased to endanger the Earth. But Mars brought out of its orbit became the dangerous neighbour of the Earth. In -747 the Earth contacted with Mars. The peril of contact repeated itself every fifteen years. At midnight March 23, -687, Earth contacted again with Mars. The catastrophe was of lesser dimensions that that of 14th or 15th century. Still Earth was brought out of its rotation, changed its orbit from one of 360 days to 365 and a quarter somewhat different days; the moon changed its orbit from 36 days to 29 days. Poles were displaced, Europe moving to the South, but the north and south poles did not exchange direction. Mars took its present position in the solar system . In contacts with Venus and Earth, Mars lost most of its organic life; it acquired some of the atmosphere of Venus (carbohydrate) and lost some of its atmosphere to our planet (probably argon and neon). Mars should be examined as to the presence of these rare gases. As a result of these contacts Earth, but also Venus and Mars are warmer than the solar radiation can account for. Anomaly in movemnet of Mercury, as well as the precession of the earth can have their origin in these displacements of planets.

Before contacts with Venus and Mars, our Earth suffered a number of cataclysmic contacts. One of the earliest was when the Earth attracted the Moon, still in memory of human kind. Thereafter passing in Saturn atmosphere the Earth was drowned in hydrogen, which drifting through oxygen of the Earth, became water. Thereafter Earth suffered heavily when Saturn and Jupiter collided, and the Earth passed dangerous close to Jupiter. Electrical contacts, change of calender (year, month, day) happened already at that times, in the fourth (?) and third millenia before the present era. Gigantic forms of life which existed at that time, only in few exemplars survived these catastrophes, but were still in existence 34 centuries ago, at the contact-cataclysm caused by Venus. The teaching of Darwin which supposes but slow changes in life-forms is wrong. Gigantic reptilia ceased to exist not tens of millions of years ago, but they lived still a few thousand years ago; they perished in catastrophes, and those that survived could not exist in new conditions, especially because of changed weight of all objects, and of their large bodies, not capable to move, esp. during gravity. Brontosaurus was not a reptile, as it is thought, but a mammal. Humankind survived in races of small kind. Gigants were exterminated. The buildings of cyclopic size-stones were possible chiefly because of different weight of all objects before the contacts. The theories of slowly development of mountains and valleys under causes like rain and wind, are wrong. The earthquakes are the post-effects of the contacts and are readjustments of displaced masses and twisted strata.

This my research is based not upon speculations but primarily on historical data; its results, better to say the results of the cataclysms can be proven by many different ways, astronomical, geological, physical, historical. As to the last it should be taken in consideration that the world (political) history of the thousand years, starting with the catastrophe of Venus is entirely confused. This catastrophe caused the end of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt. The Reconstruction of the Millenium which closed with arrival of Alexander into Egypt is prepared for print under the name ‘A chimerical millenium’. The manuscript dealing with the here recounted cosmic revolutions is written and bears the name ‘Worlds in collision’ . The other research was conceived in its all main features April 1940; the present research in 0ctober 194o; Some results, (concerning Mars) and also the concrete formulating of the fallibility of Newton’s teaching of gravitation were brought to clarity in March 1942.

As to this here mentioned fruit of my research I like to point out: the planetary bodies at contacts were not crushed ( this possibility is not excluded), but exchanged electrical discharges. The bipolarity is well balanced in the planets; bipolarity of comets is divided in tail and head. This is the cause of approach and retreat of comets to and from the sun.

The behaviour of our earth, Mars, Venus, Moon, and othe r planets at contacts, shows clearly that there is no such phenomenon as gravitation. The mathematical proofs of Newton are completely erroneous. He admitted a primary push or pull that brought the moon into motion on a straight line; he admitted gravitation force of the Earththat tries to remove the Moon from the straight line motion. An object falls near the surface of the Earth with the initial mean speed of 16,1 feet in the first second. The moon is remote from the Earth’s centre sixty times the distance of an object on the Earth surface from Earth’s center (Earth’s radius). The initial velocity of fall at the distance of the moon should be 6o times slower, 16,1 feet in a minute. 15,43 feet in a minute is the ‘fall’ of the moon from the tangent of its orbit. The approximity of these two figures 16,1 and 15,4 is but accidental. The is no logical reason to count the velocity of fall by seconds, which are but human, not in nature preexisting time measure. Reckoning by two seconds the velocity of fall would be 48,3 feet here, and the same amount in the two minutes at the distance of the moon; and the fall from the tangent line is but 30,8 feet.

The fallacity of Newton’s scheme is obvient also in terms of mechanics. The primarily force was not infinite in its strength as pull or push. It does not act anymore. The Earth on the other side pulls permanently. In many different elementar ways it is possible to show that under such conditions the permanently acting force of gravitation would let the Moon approach the Earth in a quick spiral.

As the computation concerning the Moon caused Newton to postulate a general law concerning the whole solar system and the whole Universe, it, the law of gravitation is wrong in all its applications. Velocities and masses computed with its help are probably wrong in many instances.

There exist attraction and repulsion. Electrical phenomena are responsible for attraction and for repulsion. To explain the fact that objects close to the surface of the Earth are more attracted than repulsed, we owe to admit that a high layer in the atmosphere repulses whatthe solid portion of the Earth attracts. The phenomenon of the the tail of the comets repulsed from the sun, of polar light, of zodiacal light will find here their explanation. The phenomenon (why not questioned at all?) that Nitrogen lighter than Oxygen does not move to the higher level in the atmosphere, though the air is a mixture and not a compound, is another fact of disobedience to the ‘law’ of gravitation. Also water, in small drops, is lifted then dropped by electrical charges and discharges. The radio-layer in the atmosphere is probably the attracting and repulsing medium acting contrary to the ground. The moving of negative electricity into the ground does is due to the charge of the Earth. At near distances special law acts in magnetism (also electrical phenomenon) and electricity. Levitation is conceivable. Perpetuum mobile theroretically possible. Discharge from upper layer might be exploited, also with destructive purposes. A flight to interplanetary space in defiance of gravitation is thinkable.

Electrical charges in the Earth and its atmosphere are chiefly induced and sent by the Sun. Sun sends two kinds of charges, positive and negative. Heat and light are transformations; (transformation into heat is achieved by passing media [through?] coolness of summits, but the heating of Moon surface must be accounted for, before accepting the last hypothesis.) Cosmical rays which reach the Earth have probably their origin in the Sun (and also in other cosmical bodies). They arrive during the night or during sun-eclipse, because they are moving not in straight lines. (Their efficiency on malign tumors should be explored by sending sick persons to a mountanous sanatorium near the southern 0or northern) magnetic pole).

Whether elements mutated under influence of electrical contacts of cosmic dimensions-(in cataclysms) is difficult ascertain or to deny and laboratory work will gave reply.

The building of the solar system as revealed by grandious esperiments exhibited by the nature in sight of the historical man, is composed of a two fold process : distributing of (solar) energy and arrival of new members from interstellar space, collisions, violent discharges.If an atom is built as a microcosmical model of a solar system, elements arriving from interatomic space, also travelling from one atom to another must be in existence. Contacts between elements, increase in numbers of electrones, polarities, change of orbits, all must take place. Change of orbits and emitting of energy at these moments were supposed by Bohr.

This statement I like to have guarded by an Academy of Sciences. I wrote it the night before leaving at an early hour for Washington where I shall try to leave it at the office of the Academy (there) As the largest part of this statement I wrote directly by the typewriter, I concede that a better shape might be given to the results of my research and to the physical conclusions deducted from those results. The few lines about heat had not to be written at all, at present. In the Mns the research is put in many hundreds of pages, and the physical deductions, meanwhile, are put on some tens of pages. There are problems esp. concerning ‘weight’ , ‘attraction and repulsion’ , magnetism, cosmic rays, heat, and I would like to experiment as to come to farther answers.

November 23th, 42
[signed] Dr. Im. Velikovsky