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August 30, 1959

Dear Dr. Velikovsky,

It is a pity that the Bulletin has not yet reached your place. If you want it, I could send one exemplar to you—it takes about 8-10 weekls by surface mail.

In the meantime, here is a brief excerpt from the summary of the discussion (Bull. Isr. Expl. Soc. XXIII 1-2, 1959, pp. 94).

Yadin Lower Canaanite city ca 700 Dunam (12 times Megiddo). Founded in Middle Bronze, repeatedly destroyed. Second peak about 14th cent. B.C. (El-Amarna period) to the end of the 13th cent. Great destruction, the signs of the fire cover still many buildings. Was rebuilt though on a smaller scale.-Similar observations as to the Canaanite city on the Tell (Strata XIII-XIV). - Above the Canaanite city, but below the city of Solomon, was a tiny Israelite settlement. Similar to those in the Galil of the 12th and 11th century. Yadin thinks that Joshua conquered Hazor (13th cent.). If Debora was at the end of the 13th cent., this would not be contadicted by the excavation either. Y. thinks that both statements of the Tenach are fully confirmed by the excavations, while the extreme dates for the conquest-that which fixes it in the 15/14th cent. B.C., and that which suggests the end of the 12th cent. B.C.,—are both contradicted by the finds.

Aharoni The Tenach is exact in the facts, but not always in the period. A. doubts that the conquest of Hazor ascribed to Joshua was really performed by him, but thinkgs that it fell in the period of the Judges, i.e., the 12th century B.C. A. thinks that there is not yet enough proof for fixing the date when the Canaanite city was finally destroyed. “But it is known to us that the city B on the lower Tel contained—among others—Mycenaean pottery of the type “Three B”, which was imported during the 13th century, and under no circumstances earlier than 1300 B.C.” There are still differences of opinion as to when this pottery ended—the end of the 13th or the first quarter of the 12th century B.C — Above this city was discovered a later Canaanite city. I A. And now same on the upper Tell two strata later than I B. There is no possibility for exact dating, but there is no reason to put the destruction before the 12th century B.C.

While the question of exact chronology is still disputed, two facts are clear for understanding the settlement of the Galil (1) The Canaanite Hazore was totally destroyed (Stratum I A on the lower Tell, III on the upper) and upon it settled temporarily Israelite tribes (Stratum XII). Confirms Joshua XI. (2) The Israelite tribes used Israelite pottery. This pottery is similar to the Canaanite but with characteristic differences. A. thinks that the Israelites must have spent some time with the Canaanites till they developed this style of their own which would exlcude a conquest of Hazor immediately after arrival. To define the exact time of the settlement, the excavations must be continued.

Thereafter spoke to two pottery-experts of the expedition, each of whom was responsible for a separate field of diggings.
Trude Dotan Pottery of the first two strata of the lower Canaanite city. Stratum 2, according to its pottery, belongs to Late Bronze I. Pottery of Stratum 1 contains local pottery and import ware from Cyprus and Mycenae. Local ware from the 13th and 14th cent.—none from 12th century B.C., and the same is true from the imported pottery (14th to end of 13th century). Stratum 1 is subdivided into A and B, which, however, are not always clearly distinguishable).
Ruth Amiram spoke mainly about the Israelite pottery of the earliest Israelite period. Before Solomon, no import ware. Pottery similar in Galil and Har Ephraim, Israelite immigrants developed the same forms based on those of the former inhabitants. They did not bring with them styles of their own (Sounds to me rather imporable. Ephraimites should not be influenced by Egypt in their styles?!)

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