September 11, 1963
Dear Professor Hess:
At our conference the day before yesterday I had the impression that you would welcome some suggestions on my part to the program of space investigation. Readily I have prepared a memorandum of four pages which I submit to you in your capacity as Chairman of the Space Board of the National Academy of Sciences. I have not elaborated on the reasons that make me in some selections, at least, follow an unexpected line of thought. In those tests where a condition or a fact is looked for, its finding, depending on the case, is anticipated as not impossible, probable, or even certain. All these experiments and tests spring from a common concept, basic to my theory of the structure of the universe and of its recent past. Should your Board wish oral or written explanations, I would gladly accept such invitation.
Would you also think it proper to submit the proposals contained in my memorandum to wider circles for possible criticism or for a start in exploring the problems it raises and would you consider to offer the memorandum as a paper for an early publication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences? With such idea in my view, I enclose my Propositions for Inclusion in the Program of Space Probes for the rest of 1963 and the following years accompanied by a carbon copy of it.
You will find here also a xerox copy of the recent letter by Prof. V.A. Bailey of the University of-Sydney. Hardly any addition to the staff of NASA could be of equal importance.
A. mapping of the intensity of the magnetic field of the magnetosphere.
B. measuring the reach of the magnetosphere on the day and night sides.
C. testing as to the over-all excess of positive or negative particles in the magnetosphere layers, and generally as to the positive or negative charge or neutral state of the globe with its ionosphere and magnetosphere.
D. synchronization observations as to the travel of the magnetic poles of the earth around the geographical poles (diurnal) and the daily latitudinal and longitudinal lunar librations.
A. the cause of the precession of the perihelion should be re-examined in the light of the presence of a magnetic field of solar origin and solar plasma through which Mercury plows. An artificial satellite with a perihelion close to the sun could be tracked as to the precession of its perihelion.
A. high-altitude spectral analysis of the ashen light for hydrocarbons and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates).
B. temperatures of the dayside and nightside and of the terminator compared; the phenomenon of a highest temperature at the terminator and the lowest on the dayside can be verified by testing (radiometric) from the ground and from a balloon.
C. the temperature of the clouds measured at three year intervals; it is conceivable that a slow drop of the temperature of the Cytherian cloud surface will be observed.
D. the phenomenon of Venus (a planet with a weak magnetic field) shielding the Earth, at conjunctions, from protons of solar origin, should be evaluated as to a probable net charge of the planet.
A. spectral analysis of the polar caps is possible at the time when they are melting and evaporating seasonally. Chances are that they are composed of the same organic molecules as the envelope of Venus.
B. in space probes and by balloon spectroscopy Martian atmosphere should be investigated with the intent of detecting the presence of neon and argon.
A. precise calculations should be made as to the effect of the magnetic field permeating the solar system on the motions of the planet which is surrounded by a magnetosphere of [a radiating intensity], presumably, 1014 times that of the terrestrial magnetosphere. This is basic to the impending re-evaluation of electromagnetic effects in celestial mechanics.
B. the retrograde satellites of Jupiter should be compared as to their charges with the direct satellites. Experiments should be performed with positively and negatively charged metallic drop solutions revolving in a magnetic field.
C. spectroscopic analysis of the red spot should be performed as to the presence of iron and sulphur vapors, especially over the periods of conjunction with Saturn.
A. tests should be devised for detection of low energy cosmic rays emanating from Saturn, especially during the weeks before and after a conjunction of Earth-Jupiter-Saturn.
B. with Doppler effect data at hand. the velocity of revolution of the Saturnian rings, possibly in excess of the velocity of the axial rotation of the planet, should be plotted.
C. chlorine should be looked for in the Saturnian spectrum of absorption.
A. the polar magnetic intensity of Uranus, at the time when its axis points towards the earth, should be measured (Zeeman effect).
A. the charge of this planet in relation to its mass is presumably very high, which would explain its perturbing power. Calculations should be made of the potential difference needed to account for the unaccounted perturbations of Uranus and Neptune.
A. solar net charge should be made the object of intense investigation. Solar plasma winds should be tested as to the presence of electrons, besides protons, and to the direction of their flow (drift), whether sunward.
B. experiments should be devised to enlarge our knowledge of the behavior of very hot, charged, rotating bodies in a room of very rarefied atmosphere, close in temperature to absolute zero; of the magnetic field created; of the behavior of cold, or of graded temperature, bodies (conductors) suspended (in a planetarium fashion) at various distances from the larger central hot body.
C. the solar system should be investigated as to the existence of magnetic shells, especially at the orbital distances from the sun. Radar echoes may help to establish their presence, in matter of minutes or hours.
A. the reason for repeated failures in directing projectiles with moon as target should be explored also as to the deflecting action of the magnetic fields (terrestrial and solar) with magnetopause and solar winds intervening.
B. laboratory experiments with terrestrial rocks as to splintering and erosion should be performed, duplicating the thermal conditions of the moon suddenly immersed, when hot, into coolness of space, as it happens during lunar eclipses; the sharp outlines of lunar formations should be subsequently evaluated as to their age.
XI. General Relativity Theory
A. the influence of the moon (lunar tides in the upper atmosphere) on the rectilinear propagation of stellar light as observed from the earth should be checked at different positions, especially when the moon is new and at lunar eclipses; in the solar eclipses investigated as to the bending of rays of light passing near the sun, the role of the moon and of atmospheric tides caused by it is neglected. The bending of the rays by even stronger solar tides in the atmosphere should be reduced to a minimum by balloon examination of solar eclipses.
B. the influence of Jupiter on the rectilinear propagation of stellar light should be investigated; if found, a re-examination of a possible bending of light by a strong magnetic field should be instituted, and laboratorial 100,000 gauss strong fields applied.
C. bending of stellar light rays by solar plasma (in the corona) must be evaluated and taken into account.
XII. Special Relativity Theory
A. a direct comparison of velocity of light in relation to an observer in motion and in state of rest in relation to the source of light can be executed by comparing the velocity of light from a terrestrial source with that from the sun in the morning and in the afternoon. Details of the experiment upon request.
(signed) Im. Velikovsky