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March 31, 1947

Dear Professor Shapley:

May I ask a few questions? Is the sun a charged body? Is the red line dominant in the spectrum of the solar hydrogen? Do charged particles arrive from the sun?

Does the sun rotate? Does a rotating charge body create a magnetic field?

Is the earth a charged body? Is at least its ionosphere charged? How does a charged body behave in a magnetic field? Revolving like planets around the sun?

Is the magnetic field of the sun too weak? How does it come that some of the disturbances on the sun are registered in the ionosphere as soon as they are seen? Is this not, possibly, an indication that the earth is embedded in the electromagnetic field of the sun?

Is the cause of the magnetic field around the earth in its charge? Would not a charge interfere with the movement of the earth? And since the sun is charged, should not the earth, charged or neutral, be affected in its movement by the charge of the sun?

Does a charged body fall with the same velocity as a neutral body? How do we know it? Do we measure the ascent time and the descent time separately, or do we satisfy ourselves with conting the swings of a pendulum? (p.16)

I send you a synopsis “Cosmos without gravitation”. I was not unaware of the implications of my historical cosmology (“Worlds in Collision”), about which you wrote to Kallen: “Dr. Velikovsky’s claim that there have been changes in the structure of the solar system during historical times has implications which apparently he has not thought through; or perhaps was unable to convey to me in our brief conversation... Then the laws of Newton are false.”

In the first part of the synopsis I bring some twenty-five exceptions from the law of gravitation. It is possible that some of them can be explained. But can a physical law, like a grammatical rule, exist with exceptions? Is not one exception out of twenty-five sufficient to discredit the law? Why is the sun round and not oblong, though it rotates and though its gases are under a fery weak pressure?

What I am afraid of is not to be disputed but to be dismissed without being read. I compressed my “Cosmos without gravitation” into a short synposis, and thus I replied to your challenge. The greater a scholar, the more a public figure he is; and this makes me think I am entitled to write to the bearer of the name Harlow Shapley.

Very sincerely yours,

(signed) Im. Velikovsky

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